#163. What is autoimmune disease?

#163. What is autoimmune disease?


and welcome to my channel
doctor Wynn Tran on YouTube. Today we will talk about autoimmune disease, what
are the symptoms, top ten common autoimmune diseases, and how do we treat them. I’m a practicing, a medical doctor specialized in autoimmune disease and joint pain. So let’s go ahead and start it
what is autoimmune disease, basically this is a condition in which your immune
system mistakenly attacked your own body well normally the immune system just
like the armed forces in any nations to protect us again invader foreign
subjects when the immune system detects invaders or foreigners they will send out
a bunch of cell or protein called antibody to attack those invaders, in a
healthy normal persons the immune system is able to distinguish between our body
cells and foreign cells, however in auto immune disease the immune system mistakenly they cannot distinguish which one is ours which one is the invader’s
as a result, the immune system send a bunch of cells antibody to attack multiple
organs in our body some autoimmune disease for example, type 1 diabetes, the
antibody attack only one organ the pancreas, while other disease such as
lupus the immune system attack multiple organs like kidney hair joint heart and
sometime the brain, so why does the immune system attack our body? we’re not
sure however there are some factors that may
increase risk of getting autoimmune disease for example gender, women tend
to have more autoimmune disease compared to men at a rate of two to one
certain groups are, for example, African-American or Hispanic likely to
get more disease such as lupus than Caucasian or Asians other autoimmune disease like lupus for example may run in a family, that means if your parents have
the disease you may have the disease well I say may not always because this
is just a chance. Other factors may increase risk of getting autoimmune
disease include environmental factor such as exposed to certain chemicals or
solvents how about diet, well it’s possible
because some study imply that high-fat highly highly processed food and also
high sugar diet may lead to chronic inflammation and this in turn can
increase your risk of getting auto immune disease, what are symptoms of
autoimmune disease, well most of the symptoms are nonspecific, for example you
may feel fatigue muscle ache joint pain you may have some skin rash in your face
you may have some hair loss you may feel low energies and occasionally you feel
numbness or tingling up your hands and often those symptom they come and go and
if you pay attention it usually triggered by some events for example
stress or infections or something that trigger your immune system, there are
more than 80 different autoimmune diseases, I’m going to tell you
top ten most common autoimmune diseases that you may encounter or see it. The
first one very common heard a lot it’s called rheumatoid arthritis well in
this particular autoimmune disease the immune system antibody attacked the joint
and usually they attack small joint for example the hand and you may feel
symptom like joint pain you feel really stiff in the morning you feel like
you’re joint swollen and sometime the joint really red swollen or really warm
now unlike osteoarthritis rheumatoid arthritis may attack people
at young age usually thirty and above and this condition should treat by a rheumatologist, well the next condition is called psoriasis, or psoriatic arthritis
well I will make individual video for each condition but in today talk I
just give you a very brief overview of each auto immune conditions
well psoriasis is the condition that is attacked by the immune system to the skin
and joint as a result the patient have multiple red thick sometimes we called
a silvery plaque seen on their skin, the trunk the hand and or on joint pain, treatment of
this condition usually by rheumatologist and/or dermatologists. Well the
next condition is lupus, lupus or we call systemic lupus erythematosus, this is a
condition that the immune system attacks multiple organs in the body usually they
attack the kidney they attacked the hair cause hair loss if they can attack
, they can cause joint pain if they attack the skin they cause discoid lupus
or malar rash and you may see patient they have
rashes in the face like a butterfly now treatment for lupus depends on the
disease severity s and also depend on other factors and usually this condition
it treatment many specialists include rheumatologists nephrologist kidney
doctor and other specialists now next one is called
Sjogren’s syndrome this disease the antibody instead of attack the kidney or
other organs like lupus it attacks saliva glands, is right here is
basically attacked the glands that produced liquid or produce mucus, patient with
Sjogren’s syndrome they will have dry eyes dry mouth and sometimes dry in vaginal
so those are common condition for Sjogren”s, sometimes they also have joint
pain the next condition is called vasculitis or blood vessels, in this case
the immune system include antibodies they attack blood vessel include
arteries and veins depends on the location of the attack for example up in
here or inside our body or at the hand at the legs or feet these vasculitis
have different names in general people have vasculitis they may feel low-grade
fever they may feel fatigued and in their skin they may see small red dot
and this is usually due to inflammation of the blood vessel, now
this condition usually are treated by rheumatologists after ordering some labs
and other specialist may treat this condition as well now the next one you
probably heard or known is called type 1 diabetes in this condition the auto-bodies attack the pancreas, remember the
pancreas is the one to produce insulin producing cell,
as a result of these conditions type 1 diabetes people have really high blood
sugar and in turn it can cause multiple damages to multiple organs. The next
autoimmune disease involved the nervous system called multiple sclerosis usually
in our body we have many nerves and they are coated or protected by a special layer
called myelin sheath this protection to make sure that the signal transmissions
to any part of our body intact in this autoimmune disease multiple sclerosis
the damage the myelin sheath slowed the transmissions speed or messages between
our brain and other nerves as a result people have the condition they may may
feel numbness tingling and balance issue the specialist treats this condition is the
neurologists and/or other specialists now you see that whenever the immune
system attack different organs they have different name we are moving from the
nervous system with multiple sclerosis to a GI system, GI means the mouth the
esophagus the stomach the small intestine and then colon
now when antibody attack different parts of the GI tract it has different name
for example Kron dizzy can inflame any for example, Cronh’s disease can inflame any part of GI track from the mouth to
the anus while ulcerative colitis affect only the lining of the large intestine
of the colons, speaking about GI tract there is one disease that particularly
important called Celiac disease in this disease people cannot eat certain food
contains glutens, this is a protein found in wheat, rice, and alll the grain
products so when gluten is in the small intestine the immune system
attack this part of the GI tract and cause inflammations so celiac is a disease
that mostly can be controlled by diet because you can see that gluten trigger
the inflammations, how about thyroid so if the immune system attacks thyroid we
have a different names as you can guess this called Hashimoto disease this is an
autoimmune disease that affect the thyroid glands, thyroid is the organ that
produce vital hormone in our bodies particularly dealing with energies we
have too much thyroid we feel too much energies if we don’t have enough thyroid
we feel sluggish we feel really low energy we gain weight now in Hashimoto’s
the antibody attack the thyroid cause thyroid become inflamed and as a result
the thyroid is malfunctions it cannot produce enough thyroid and some people
they may gained weight they may feel low energies they feel fatigue and treatment
simply suppress the immune system so that there is less attack. We talked about
symptoms we talk about common diseases now question is when should you see a
doctor and who should you see, well in general
if you have those symptoms you should see a family doctor first
who can triage or evaluate your symptoms to see whether those symptoms sometimes
could be just a common cold or something else then the family doctor or general
doctor will refer you to see a specialist in autoimmune disease in
general rheumatologist they treat joint pain and they treat vasculitis
they treat lupus neurologist they treat multiple sclerosis gastroenterologist
is that the GI specialist they treat inflammatory bowel disease or celiac
disease now the dermatologist they also treat
psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis also treat by rheumatologist, endocrinologists
treat a thyroid problem like Hashimoto’s so depend on the particular organs were
affected by the immune system you may see different specialists, what tests can
diagnosis autoimmune disease, well the short answer is there is no single test
can diagnosis autoimmune disease often the autoimmune disease is diagnosed based on
clinical symptoms lab tests and/or Imaging’s, the most common tests and also
the most misunderstanding test is called ANA or anti-nuclear antibody test
this test basically just to see how active your immune system by measure the
level antibody attack other organs now remember up to five or ten percent
of general population have positive ANA without any symptom or diseases so it’s
okay for someone to have positive ANA the best way to talk about this test is
talk to your auto immune disease specialist who will put into your
clinical context with your symptoms with all other things to make a final
diagnosis, let’s talk about treatments for autoimmune disease so far we know
that autoimmune diseases are caused by the immune system mistakenly attack our
body’s, attack specific organs and cause specific diseases so the treatment is
somehow if we can control those attacks obviously autoimmune disease
cannot be cured and this is something that I often tell my patient we going to
link with autoimmune disease, however what we can do is we can control the immune
system to make them less active to make them less targeting our organs and how
do we do this, we have many many drugs and in each type of drugs we have
different way to control our system now the most common one that you may heard
it call non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or NSAIDs ibuprofen Aleve Motrin
usually are the most first line of treatment for auto immune disease the
second most common one is called steroids obviously steroid will suppress
or withhold the immune system but long-term steroid has
serious side effect so talk to your doctor about how to or how much should
you be on steroids other medication you may heard called DMARD or disease
modifying antirheumatic drugs this this is a group of medication that
particularly attacks or modifies the immune system and some of them are
Plaquenil or hydroxylchloroquinone this is the famous drugs in Covid-19
now other medications are called cyclosporine methotraxate those are
modifying the immune system and lastly we have something called biologics those
are particularly small molecule drugs that attack the inflammation pathway, re
call the immune system sent out by multiple a lot antibody and cells to
attack an organ, in order for the immune system to do so, it will send the
message via multiple cascades biologic medication attack each pathway
and block the message, therefore no antibody at the very end are produced
and therefore the autoimmune disease is controlled, so the bottom line is we have
a lot of autoimmune disease out there about eighty of them and the 10 more common disease
I spoke to you today in next couple videos I will talk particularly about
each one and hopefully you will understand more about each conditions and
you may educate your patients or your friends about this, thank you for
supporting Dr. Wynn Tran channel on YouTube and see you next time you